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Official document of Limpiyadhura-Kalapani

Book review

For the first time, the Curriculum Development Center under the Ministry of Education has published a book on Nepal's territory and borders. The book has been prepared by keeping a new map of Nepal including Limpiyadhura, Lipulek and Kalapani, especially to inform the secondary level students about the territory and borders of Nepal.

Nepali lands including Limpiyadhura, Kalapani and Lipulek in the northwestern border areas of Nepal are included in the facts, figures and evidence in accordance with the international standards of Nepal. It contains references on social studies, history, geography and other subjects for study, teaching and facilitation. At the beginning of the book, there is an updated map of Nepal including Limpiyadhura, Lipulek and Kalapani. The book includes historical references to the origin of the word Nepal, ancient history of Nepal, medieval history, Prithvinarayan Shah's unification campaign, expansion of Nepal after Prithvinarayan Shah and construction and contraction of Greater Nepal.

Topics such as introduction and principle of international borders, concept of international borders, international border principles, causes of border disputes have been covered. Mention is made regarding open border, controlled regulation border, closed border system. An open border between Nepal and India and a regulated border system between Nepal and China have been established. The border between Nepal and China is based on the Panidhalo border principle. Rainwater from the highest landmass between the two countries divides and divides into two, forming a water dividing line. The method of considering the water dividing line formed in this way as international border is called Panidhalo border principle. When there is a treaty between the two countries, where there is a river,

The book deals with river boundary theory, fluid boundary theory, depth boundary theory, conduct theory, exchange boundary theory and reciprocal boundary theory. Boundary disputes are explained with reasons. The solution is mentioned. From technical, political, diplomatic talks, by creating public pressure, by forcing third countries to mediate, by generating international pressure, the book can be resolved at the United Nations. If there is no solution even through the decision of the international court, the border can be settled through war.

The book gives information about the area of ​​Nepal from King Ari Malla in 1259. At that time, the area of ​​899 square kilometers of Kathmandu Valley was named Nepal. After the unification of Prithvinarayan Shah, the area of ​​Nepal is 41,484 square kilometers. As his successors carried on the unification campaign, in 1863, Nepal was bounded on the east by the Tista River, on the west by Fort Kangda, on the north by the Sigatse (Tasilhunpo Gumba) in Tibet, and on the south by the Yamuna and Ganga rivers. It was 575 square kilometers. The book is about understanding it as a giant Nepal. After the war between Nepal and the British, the land of Nepal was reduced to 1,13,620.28 square kilometers by the Sugauli Treaty. It is mentioned that the Sugauli Treaty was forcibly imposed on Nepal by the East India Company.

On December 2, 1815, the East India Company sent a draft treaty of peace and friendship to Nepal for signing within 15 days. Initially, the Nepali side refused to sign because Nepal had lost the war in the West, but the treaty included the East. However, after threatening to attack Kathmandu, Nepal was forced to go to Sugauli on March 4, 1816 and sign the treaty

The East India Company of the British Empire did not like the fact that Nepal was expanding its borders in this way. So after helping the king of Kangada to fight against Nepal, he had to return to the Nepali Sutlej river in 1866 BS. The east-west length of Nepal fell to 1,373 km and the area to 2,04,917 sq km. The British did not stop there. He settled the dispute over the then Butwal and Swaraj territories and declared war on November 1, 1814. After a six-month defeat in the Nepal-British War, a ceasefire agreement was signed between Amar Singh Thapa and David Akterloni on 15 May 1815. As per the agreement, Nepal had to lose the territory from Mahakali to West Sutlej. 

Taking advantage of the fact that those who were weakened by the Nepalese war and those in power were divided, the East India Company sent Nepal to sign the draft treaty of peace and friendship on December 2, 1815 within 15 days. Initially, the Nepali side refused to sign because Nepal had lost the war in the West, but the treaty included the East. However, after threatening to attack Kathmandu, Nepal was forced to go to Sugauli on March 4, 1816 and sign the treaty. The agreement was signed by British Governor General Lonnie on behalf of the Company Government, stating that the treaty would be ratified by the King of Nepal within 15 days from today. Is in the book.

As the King of Nepal disagreed with the treaty, a supplementary treaty was signed between Nepal and the East India Company on 7 December 1873. By this treaty, Nepal got back 24,812 square kilometers of Terai land from Rapti to Koshi. After that, the area of ​​Nepal became 1,38,434.28 square kilometers. According to the book, there is a dispute over the geography of Nepal and diplomatic issues. The responsibility of preparing the survey map of Nepal lies with the Department of Survey under the Ministry of Land Reforms, Cooperatives and Poverty Alleviation. Even in the five months since the new map was released, the updated area has not been made public. The Ministry of Education has printed textbooks including new maps and areas.

There is a lack of coordination between the three ministries on the total area of ​​Nepal. The Ministry of Foreign Affairs and the Ministry of Land Management have disagreed with the book. The Ministry of Foreign Affairs has stated that the words used in the book are not in line with diplomatic dignity, while the Ministry of Land Management, Cooperatives and Poverty Alleviation has stated that the geographical area of ​​Nepal should have been degraded. They have expressed disagreement saying that the Ministry of Education has published a book on borders in violation of the mandate. Some facts are wrong, it is not even the mandate of the Ministry of Education, it is different from the official opinion of the government, even the confidential documents are included in the book, the ministry staff said.

Prime Minister KP Sharma Oli has instructed the Ministry of Education, Foreign Affairs and Land Management to revise the book. He has also instructed not to distribute the book immediately until the amendment is made. The Ministry of Education has issued a circular not to distribute books immediately as per the directive of Prime Minister Oli. Border experts, diplomats, and geographers have argued that the book is flawed and that there is no substitute for correcting it. There is an argument that it would be better if it was made public only after discussion as a draft. There seems to be a lot of error in making it public in a hurry. There are many problems with speeding.

The book also contains serious factual errors. The same is true of linguistic errors. Factual errors make the book more vulnerable and controversial than linguistic. If there was a book published by an individual, even if there was a factual error in it, it could not have much effect. It is a big problem to see such an error as it has been published by the Ministry of Education. It is advisable to bring the book to the notice of the people only by modifying it immediately. The book was written by Komal Chandra Baral, a campaigner of Save the Border Campaign, Sher Bahadur Gurung, a geographer and cartographer from Tribhuvan University, and Keshav Raj Dhakal, a geographer and textbook writer.

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