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Tihar festival and its speciality

The second biggest festival of Hindu Nepalis, Tihar, is celebrated from Kartik Krishna Triodashi to Kartik Shukla Dwitiya. The festival is celebrated by playing ping pong, celebrating Diwali, playing deus ex machina, and eating sweets. As it is celebrated for five days from Kartik Krishna Triodashi to Kartik Shukla Dwitiya, it is called Yamapanchak.


From Kartik Krishna Triodashi to Kartik Shukla Dwitiya, Yamaraj also postpones his daily work and stays with his sister the Yamuna as a guest and receives his brother-in-law.


The name of the Tihar festival is distorted from the Hindi word 'festival' to become Tihar. It is also known as Diwali. Crow, dog, cow, Lakshmi, Govardhana, and brother are worshiped in Yamapanchak respectively.


According to Hindu mythology
The Tihar festival is celebrated for five days. According to Hindu mythology, Surya's son Yamaraj accepted the invitation of his sister the Yamuna and went to her house to celebrate. While living in this way, Yamuna was very pleased with Yamuna's behavior. Yamraj said to his sister the Yamuna, "Ask for whatever you like." She asked for a gift.


There is a tradition that Yamaraj said goodbye to his sister with the gift of everlasting prosperity and fame of those who make him worship the brotherhood in this way with Manasa, vow, karma, and sincerity. It presents a picture of the relationship, but on the other hand, it also highlights the intimate and sacred love and the relationship between brothers and sisters.


Crow Tihar 

Crow festival is celebrated on the first day of the Tihar festival i.e. on the day of Kartik Krishna Triodashi by worshiping the crow and giving sweet food. According to Vedic beliefs, the crow is considered as a messenger. There are various reasons for worshiping the crow. If the crow looks at everyone with the same eyes, it will eat the insects and grasshoppers in the grain crop. The crow is also considered to be the messenger of Yamaraj's message.


Today, there is a religious belief that if you do not worship the crow and eat it, you will be a partaker of sin. According to the Vedic Sanatan Hindu religion, the crow is considered as a messenger. From today onwards, there is a religious belief that donating a Yama lamp frees one from Yama torture. 'ऐन्द्रवारुणवायव्यां याम्यां वै नैऋतास्तथा । वायसा प्रतिगृहृणन्तु मया दत्तं वलिंत्विमम् ।' There is a classical provision that the crow should be called and given food items such as curd and rice, but in practice, it is found that the tradition has been maintained by placing dal and rice in the duna. On the evening of the same day, there is a provision to light a lamp in the name of Yamaraj.


Kukur Tihar

Kukur Tihar is celebrated on the second day of Yamapanchak, i.e. on the day of Kartik Krishna Chaturdashi. During the dog festival, it is customary to worship the dog's favorite food and wear garlands. On the day of Kartik Krishna Chaturdashi, a dog is given a sweet dish.


When feeding the dog, 'द्वौ श्वानौ श्याम शवलौ वैवश्वत कुलोद्भवौ । ताभ्यामन्नं प्रयच्छामि स्यातामेता बहिंसकौ ।'. That is, I will give food to you two dogs of black and scatter color born in the universal clan. You are said to be non-violent. Dogs are also considered as messengers. The dog is another favorite of Yamaraj. Dogs are not only considered as obedient and protectors, but also find and study criminals who commit various crimes. Dogs have been helping people by taking care of their homes and protecting them from thieves. In the same way, it also gives an advance warning in case of any natural calamity or divine calamity. The dog is also called Bhairav's vehicle.


The Rig Veda clearly mentions 'Samara', the mother of the dogs, who helped Indra, the king of the heavens, to find his lost object. According to the Vedic Sanatan Hindu tradition, the dog is considered as the guardian, security guard, and envoy of Yamaraj and it is said that the dog guards the gate of salvation till death.


Even in the Mahabharata, it is mentioned that the truthful Yudhisthira refused to go to heaven without his devotee dog. The dog is considered a conceptual example of religion and a representative of the path of righteousness. The vehicle of Lord Bhairav, the fearless Tantra seeker, is also a dog.


Narak Chaturdashi In the morning, at dawn, go to the river or lake to bathe, tarpan, and return to the south of the Yamadipa to wash away the hell after death due to the religious belief that there is a ritual of bathing in hell.


Gaitihar and Lakshmi Puja 
Lakshmi Puja and Gaitihar are celebrated on the third day of Yamapanchak, i.e. on the day of Kartik Krishna paksha Aunsi. On this day, Lakshmi is worshiped as the goddess of wealth and the cow as Gaumata. While praying, one should recite the mantra, Similarly, when giving food, “Surbhirvaishnavi mother is always Vishnupadeshita. There is a classical belief that one should recite the mantra "सुरभिर्वैष्णवी माता नित्यं विष्णुपदेस्थिता । गोग्रासं च मया दत्तं त्वं गृहाणानुकम्पया".


On this day, in the morning, the cow is adorned with flowers, rice flour, and milk on the body adorned with flowers, and the rope of Rakshabandhan worn on the full moon is also tied to the cow's tail. After cow worship, Lakshmi is worshiped in the evening. On this day, houses, courtyards, chowks, are covered with green cow dung and cleaned. Also, Lakshmi's footprints of rice flour are kept as far as Dhukuti and Bhandar, and money, gold, and silver are kept in the storeroom.


After the worship of Lakshmi, the windows and doors are decorated with earthenware lamps, colorful candles, and colorful electric lamps. On this day, the offering shell, Babur, is cooked for Lakshmi, hence this festival is also called the Chad eating festival by the children. According to the mythological legend behind this festival, this night Lakshmi reaches the place where the rain light shines on the earth from heaven because the goddess of wealth does not like dirt so it is cleaned and illuminated everywhere. It is also customary for women to play bhalo on this day in the evening.


Whether it is the celebration of Diwali by the people of Ayodhya in celebration of Lord Ramachandra's ascension to the throne as the king of Ayodhya on the day of Kartik Krishna Aunsi after the destruction of various demons by Ravana for the sake of public welfare, Yes


Goru Tihar 
celebrated on the fourth day of Yamapanchak, i.e. Kartik Shuklapaksh Pratipada's Hal Tihar or Govardhan Puja. According to tradition, Nepalis worship and celebrate Govardhan. Hindus worship Govardhana in the shape of Gobardhan mountain by covering it with cow dung and red soil in the yard of their house. There is a tradition of feeding and worshiping various kinds of cattle as they help the farmers to plow the land and pull carts.


In any case, while worshiping Govardhan Parbat, “Govardhan Dharadhar Gokulatranakarak. While chanting the mantra "कृष्णबाहुकृतच्छाय गवां कोटिप्रदो भव" and praying to Baliraja, There is a provision to recite the mantra "Indrashatrodmararate Vishnu Sannidhyado Bhav".


According to mythology, Govardhana is a mountain near Gokul. According to belief, Lord Krishna lived with the Gopals in Gokul. The Gopals used to worship Indra, the king of the gods, but they did not get anything from Indra. Krishna says that one day it is better to worship Govardhana mountain which gives minerals, grass, water, and firewood than to worship Indra who gives nothing to the people of Gokul and everyone agrees to do so and Govardhana mountain is worshiped. Angered by worshiping Govardhana mountain instead of himself, Indra rains hail and water on Gokul, and Lord Krishna raises Govardhana mountain by hand to give shelter to all the people of Gokul and finally apologizes to Krishna for his defeat. It is said that Govardhana worship started at that time.


Similarly, the Newar community today worships their body and celebrates Mhapuja. The main deity has been worshiped with the belief that if the soul is satisfied, the gods will be happy and all work will be successful. In the family, the girl worships the body of all the members of the family, i.e. the body of a duck or a chicken.


Shankhadhar Sakhwa, a national icon, ruled Nepal in 880 AD. He had run the Nepal Samvat by freeing the people of Kathmandu from debt. In this way, ordinary people exchange New Year's greetings and celebrate various events in memory of Shankdhar Sakhwa. It is also customary for men to play deusi on this day.


Bhai Tika
pelt the last day of the lunar day of Kartik Shukla II This festival is celebrated with special enthusiasm. In this festival, there is a tradition of worshiping sister to brother and brother to sister and brother to sister with special respect, feeding them fruits and sweets, giving alms and clothes to sisters.


While praying to Yamaraj, The mantra “धर्मराज नमस्तुभ्यं नमस्ते यमुनाग्रज । पाहि मां किङ्करै साद्र्धं सूर्यपुत्र नमोडस्तुते"  should be recited. In ancient times, sister Yamuna worshiped brother Yamaraj with special reverence on this day. We have a religious belief that Yamaraj stays in Yamuna's house for five days of Yamapanchak. On the day of Bhaitihar, worship of Kalash and Ganesha, an invocation of Yamaraj, use of Bimiro, Okhar, oil, velvet garland, dubo's tika, katus, etc. are used to wish happiness, health, and longevity to one's sisters and brothers.


Undoubtedly, Tihar is our great cultural festival, but it has more scientific significance than its cultural significance.

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